fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster

JAIF Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Choisir vos préférences en matière de cookies. It received JPY 7 billion ($91 million) in public funds as well as a total of JPY 7 billion from 12 nuclear plant operators, the Tepco share of JPY 2379 million ($30 million) being largest. The tsunami – here only 9 m high – affected the generators and there was major interruption to cooling due to damaged heat exchangers, so the reactors were almost completely isolated from their ultimate heat sink. They were in 'cold shutdown' at the time, but still requiring pumped cooling. Access has been gained to all three reactor buildings, but dose rates remain high inside. Areas with colour changes in 2012 showed approximately half the contamination as surveyed in 2011, the difference coming from decay of caesium-134 (two year half-life) and natural processes like wind and rain. Early in 2014 the government estimated it would take JPY11 trillion and 40 years to clean up the Fukushima site. Despite the efforts of the operators at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to maintain control, the reactor cores in units 1-3 overheated, the nuclear fuel melted and the three containment vessels were breached. (Oxidation of the zirconium cladding at high temperatures in the presence of steam produces hydrogen exothermically, with this exacerbating the fuel decay heat problem.). The provision for contributions from other nuclear operators is similar to that in the USA. On the 11th of March 2011, a magnitude 9 earthquake caused a tsunami to hit the Tohoku coastline of Japan. During the events, Tepco would decline to communicate issues and actions with neither the press nor foreign representatives. However, subsequent inspection of the suppression chamber did not support the rupture interpretation. In February 2015 the IAEA completed its third review mission (as follow-up to that of late 2013, and involving some 180 experts from 42 IAEA member states and other organizations over two years) and reported on decommissioning to METI. In other words, nothing like the catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was possible―no tsunami of 45 feet could swamp a nuclear power station and knock out its emergency systems. 21 April The government set the 20km radius no-go area. The same criteria would be used, as above, with 20 mSv/yr being the threshold of concern to authorities. Until it did―over the course of a week in March 2011. The government and 12 utilities are contributing funds into the new institution to pay compensation to individuals and businesses claiming damages caused by the accident. A few of these developed leaks in 2013. Earlier, consortia led by both Hitachi-GE and Toshiba submitted proposals to Tepco for decommissioning units 1-4. The scheme includes a new state-backed institution to expedite payments to those affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This transient workforce has been part of the nuclear scene for at least four decades, and at Fukushima their doses are very rigorously monitored. Gas control systems which extract and clean the gas from the PCV to avoid leakage of caesium have been commissioned for all three units. On 14 June 2011, Japan's cabinet passed the Nuclear Disaster Compensation Bill, and a related budget to fund post-tsunami reconstruction was also passed subsequently. Tepco accepted the conditions imposed on the company as part of the package. The fuel handling machine for unit 3 was built by Toshiba in January 2016 and delivered to the port at the plant. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station located in the Pacific Ocean coast received huge damage by the earthquake and tsunami. Its preliminary report said that decontamination efforts were commendable but driven by unrealistic targets. Disposal will be either into the atmosphere or the sea. People within a radius of 20 km of the site and in other designated areas were evacuated, and those within a radius of 20-30 km were instructed to shelter before later being advised to voluntarily evacuate. These reduced levels are reflected in worker doses: during January 2013, the 5702 workers at the site received an average of 0.86 mSv, with 75% of workers recorded as receiving less than 1 mSv. NISA confirmed that there was no significant change in radioactivity levels in the sea as a result of the 0.15 TBq discharge. They will be monitored closely for "potential late radiation-related health effects at an individual level." Collected water from them, with high radioactivity levels, was being treated for caesium removal and re-used. UNSCEAR’s final report of radiation effects was released in April 2014. It was emitting high levels of radiation and gasses that the workers inside were urged to evacuate and cease all work. It is the most serious nuclear accident in history after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The least-contaminated area is now entirely below 33 mSv/yr. Eleven reactors at four nuclear power plants in the region were operating at the time and all shut down automatically when the earthquake hit. Toshiba has built a 74-tonne fuel handling machine for transferring the 566 fuel assemblies into casks and to remove debris in the pool, and a crane for lifting the fuel transfer casks. The latter included the two unit 3-4 control room operators in the first two days who had not been wearing breathing apparatus. Evacuation orders have been progressively lifted, apart from some 300 km2 designated areas with annual dose levels above 20 mSv with continuous occupation. Read more In September 2017 the government updated the June 2015 decommissioning roadmap, with no changes to the framework, and confirming first removal of fuel debris from unit 1 in 2021. The report concludes that the region should be alerted of the risk of a similar disaster striking again. In October 2013, 81,000 evacuees remained displaced due to government concern about radiological effects from the accident. In defuelled unit 4, at about 6 am on Tuesday 15 March, there was an explosion which destroyed the top of the building and damaged unit 3's superstructure further. Among hundreds of aftershocks, an earthquake with magnitude 7.1, closer to Fukushima than the 11 March one, was experienced on 7 April, but without further damage to the plant. The highest radiation levels on site came from debris left on the ground after the explosions at units 3&4. In particular, proposals were sought for dealing with: the accumulation of contaminated water (in storage tanks, etc); the treatment of contaminated water including tritium removal; the removal of radioactive materials from the seawater in the plant's 30 ha harbour; the management of contaminated water inside the buildings; measures to block groundwater from flowing into the site; and, understanding the flow of groundwater. In mid-May 2011 the unit 1 core would still be producing 1.8 MW of heat, and units 2&3 would be producing about 3.0 MW each. A different design of cover is being built over unit 3, and foundation work had begun in 2012. Unit 4 became a problem on day five. The damaged Fukushima Daiichi plant was the one that was struck the worst. In October 2018 Tepco announced that some 80% of its 900,000 m3 of stored water from reactor buildings remained above legal limits for discharge to the sea. Registered office: Tower House, 10 Southampton Street, London, WC2E 7HA, United Kingdom, Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, Earthquakes and Seismic Protection for Nuclear Power Plants in Japan, Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/20121102_sinsaikanrensi.pdf, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/240821_higashinihondaishinsainiokerushinsaikanrenshinikansuruhoukoku.pdf, National Diet Investigation Commission report, Fukushima Daiichi Accident – Technical Causal Factor Analysis, Government’s Decision on Addressing the Contaminated Water Issue at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi NPS, The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, Report by the Director General on The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Earthquakes and Seismic Protection for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development, Hydrogen explosion (not confirmed for unit 2). However, the radiation levels in most of the evacuated areas were not greater than the natural radiation levels in high background areas elsewhere in the world where no adverse health effect is evident, so maintaining the evacuation beyond a precautionary few days was evidently the main disaster in relation to human fatalities. The results of UNSCEAR’s 12-month study on the magnitude of radioactive releases to the atmosphere and ocean, and the range of radiation doses received by the public and workers were announced in May 2013 are reported above in the subsection on Radiation Exposure. Later this was accompanied by hydrogen, produced by the interaction of the fuel's very hot zirconium cladding with steam after the water level dropped. It is the date of the Higashi Nihon Daishinsai or the Tohoku Eathquake and Tsunami or the Great Eastern Japanese Earthquake. Why hopefully? The national government promotes decontamination in these areas. The average compensation for real estate was JPY 49.1 million ($490,000), JPY 10.9 million ($110,000) for lost wages, and JPY 30 million ($300,000) as “consolation money” for pain and suffering. By December 2018, 2259 disaster-related deaths, that were not due to radiation-induced damage or to the earthquake or to the tsunami, had been identified by the Japanese authorities. It was established within the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and was led by Law Professor Yoshihisa Nomi of Gakushuin, University in Tokyo. This was both from the tsunami inundation and leakage from reactors. Uranium Film Festival circuit 2021 is dedicated to Fukushima 2021 marks 10 years since the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 and the subsequent nuclear disaster at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. An August 2012 Reconstruction Agency report also considered workers at Fukushima power plant. He visited the plant soon after. Measurement was by personal dosimeters over August-September 2012. The June 1896 earthquake of estimated magnitude 8.3 produced a tsunami with run-up height of 38 metres in Tohoku region, killing more than 27,000 people. Due to the high levels of radiation the employees were called off and soon, the plants were left to die out. As pressure rose, attempts were made to vent the containment, and when external power and compressed air sources were harnessed this was successful, by about 2.30 pm Saturday, though some manual venting was apparently achieved at about 10.17 am. Following a massive and destructive earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, the Daiichi power complex on Japan's Pacific coast, about 250 km north of Tokyo, was the site of the world's worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl in 1986. This power plant with six boiling water reactors is designed by General Electrics and maintained by Tokyo Electric Power Company. Thereafter, many weeks of focused work centred on restoring heat removal from the reactors and coping with overheated spent fuel ponds. The percentage of utility contributions was fixed in proportion to the power output of their plants, so Kansai Electric Power Co. provided JPY 1229 million, followed by JPY 660 million by Kyushu Electric Power Co. and JPY 622 million by Chubu Electric Power Co. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., which owns a used nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Aomori Prefecture, provided JPY 117 million to the entity. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. A significant problem in tracking radioactive release was that 23 out of the 24 radiation monitoring stations on the plant site were disabled by the tsunami. Most Japanese people were exposed to additional radiation amounting to less than the typical natural background level of 2.1 mSv per year. This, it said, also resulted from "harmful rumours" about the possible health effects of consuming food products from the region near the damaged power plant. Tepco has written off the four reactors damaged by the accident, and is decommissioning them. 5. Reactors 1-3 came into commercial operation 1971-75. Temperatures at the bottom of the reactor pressure vessels have decreased to well below boiling point and are stable. In February 2015 the prime minister said that restarting the four units was essentially a matter for Tepco to decide. Reactor capacity is 460 MWe for unit 1, 784 MWe for units 2-5, and 1100 MWe for unit 6. The government said it would consider purchasing land and houses from residents of these areas if the evacuees wish to sell them. * effectively 6750, due to one rack of 90 having some damaged fuel. The reinforced basic assumption among the stakeholders about the robustness of the technical design of nuclear power plants resulted in a situation where safety improvements were not introduced promptly. It said that "In light of the lessons learned from the accident, Japan has recognized that a fundamental revision of its nuclear safety preparedness and response is inevitable.". - Please find more information about Covid-19 infections on TEPCO employees here. Some radioactivity has been released to the sea, but this has mostly been low-level and it has not had any significant impact beyond the immediate plant structures. Electrical switchgear was also disabled. The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. Two murals of boy who was 2 at the time of the disaster were unveiled Sunday in Futaba, which hosted the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. (Asahi Shimbun 26/10/13). In March 2020, TEPCO released a conceptual study in relation to two disposal methods of the ALPS-treated water – discharge into the sea and vapour discharge – with TEPCO going to undertake further studies into the dilution rates of tritium through both options. The plan also involved Tepco reducing its own costs by JPY 2545 billion ($32.6 billion) over the next ten years, including shedding 7400 jobs. The tritium is concentrated 1000 to 20,000 times. This concluded that the rates of cancer or hereditary diseases were unlikely to show any discernible rise in affected areas because the radiation doses people received were too low. Animation video of the process here. 30 mSv but varying according to circumstance, they are reassigned to lower-exposure areas. Fukushima nuclear disaster preventable, court rules, with more damages claims likely This article is more than 2 months old Government and company Tepco ordered to … Discussion was ongoing, but action minimal. The situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant has been an ongoing disaster since the March 11 earthquake and tsunami. Tests on radioactivity in rice have been made and caesium was found in a few of them. The government in September 2013 said that “At present, statistically-significant increase of radioactive concentration in the sea outside the port of the TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi NPS has not been detected.” And also that “The results of monitoring of sea water in Japan are constantly below the standard of 10 Bq/L” (the WHO standard for Cs-137 in drinking water). Commercial, healthcare and private buildings were gone with the black waters as were also streets, bridges and many, many lives. Tepco estimated its extra costs for fossil fuels in 2011-12 (April-March) would be about JPY 830 billion ($10.7 billion). The whole process will be complex and slow, since safety remains paramount. (Japan Times 20/2/14), Evacuees receive JPY 100,000 (about $1000) per month in psychological suffering compensation. In November 2019 the trade and industry ministry stated that annual radiation levels from the release of the tritium-tainted water are estimated at between 0.052 and 0.62 microsieverts if it were disposed of at sea and 1.3 microsieverts if it were released into the atmosphere, compared with the 2100 microsieverts (2.1 mSv) that humans are naturally exposed to annually. ), Used fuel needs to be cooled and shielded. Unit 2 is the main source of contaminated water, though some of it comes from drainage pits. By the end of March all storages around the four units – basically the main condenser units and condensate tanks – were largely full of contaminated water pumped from the buildings. By 22 December 2014, all 1331 used as well as all 202 new fuel assemblies had been moved in 71  cask shuttles without incident, with weekly updates having been published. It put the figure at 2259 as determined by municipal panels that examine links between the disaster’s aftermath and deaths. 18:25 The government ordered 20km evacuation. The maximum amplitude of this tsunami was 23 metres at point of origin, about 180 km from Fukushima. Background: To shed light on the mental health of evacuees after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), we evaluate the results of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) of the residents at Kawauchi village in Fukushima, which is located less than 30 km from the FDNPS. Each of six trains is capable of processing 250 m3/day to remove 62 remaining radioisotopes. Also, there is potential to produce more food safely in contaminated areas. Nitrogen is being injected into all three containment vessels and pressure vessels. From mid-June some treatment with zeolite of seawater at 30 m3/hr was being undertaken near the water intakes for units 2&3, inside submerged barriers installed in April. The government may relieve the operator of liability if it determines that damage results from “a grave natural disaster of an exceptional character” (which it did not do here), and in any case total liability is unlimited. The tsunami countermeasures taken when Fukushima Daiichi was designed and sited in the 1960s were considered acceptable in relation to the scientific knowledge then, with low recorded run-up heights for that particular coastline. The Daiichi (first) and Daini (second) Fukushima plants are sited about 11 km apart on the coast, Daini to the south. Until it did―over the course of a week in March 2011. In October 2013 a 16-member IAEA mission reported on remediation and decontamination in the Special Decontamination Areas. These were in two stages, and are described in the Japan Nuclear Power paper. The team said that it agreed with the prioritization and the general strategy being implemented, but advised the government to focus on actual dose reduction. Some 326 out of about 1400 projects funded had no direct relevance to the natural disaster or Fukushima Daiichi accident. Japan has poured billions of dollars into recovery from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. From Tuesday 15 March attention was given to replenishing the water in the ponds of units 1, 2, 3 as well. As noted above, removal of the very degraded fuel will be a long process in units 1-3, but will draw on experience at Three Mile Island in the USA. It is being fitted in 2017, with a cover, for the 566 fuel assemblies to be removed by mid-2018. Toshiba’s 74-tonne fuel handling machine for transferring the fuel assemblies into casks is expected be installed in 2017, and the fuel is to be removed from mid-2018. https://safety.productions/2019/02/03/fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-disaster However, a month after the tsunami the NSC raised the rating to 7 for units 1-3 together, 'a major accident', saying that a re-evaluation of early radioactive releases suggested that some 630 PBq of I-131 equivalent had been discharged, mostly in the first week. No Comments on The Fukushima Daiichi Disaster – A Report on Risk Identification Failures; By Justin Kanzah-Andoh. Reactors 1-3: First it is necessary to identify the locations of leaks from the primary containment vessels (PCVs) and reactor buildings using manual and remotely controlled dosimeters, cameras, etc., and indirectly analyse conditions inside the PCVs from the outside via measurements of gamma rays, echo soundings, etc. It is now understood that core damage started about 5:30 am and much or all of the fuel melted on the morning of Sunday 13th and fell into the bottom of the RPV, with some probably going through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel and onto the concrete below. These include: Evacuation aims to minimize or prevent health risks of radiation exposure. Retrouvez The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Disaster: Investigating the Myth and Reality et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Government’s Decision on Addressing the Contaminated Water Issue at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi NPS, 3 Sept 2013, on Ministry of Foreign Affairs website Tepco management ignored an instruction from the prime minister to cease the seawater injection into unit 1, and this instruction was withdrawn shortly afterwards. In units 1, 2&4 there were cooling problems still evident on Tuesday 15th. It is the date when the world shook with the lands of Tohoku and Miyagi, the two prefectures that were affected most severely as entire towns were levelled to the ground. The national Diet later set up a legally-constituted Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC, or National Diet Investigation Commission) of ten members which started its work in December 2011. It started demolishing the 2011 cover in 2014 and finished in 2016. In October 2013 guidelines for rainwater release from the site allowed Tepco to release water to the sea without specific NRA approval as long as it conformed to activity limits. This was due to the conservative approach to earthquake design and construction of nuclear power plants in Japan, resulting in a plant that was provided with sufficient safety margins. 20 mSv/yr was also the general limit set for children's dose rate related to outdoor activities, but there were calls to reduce this.In areas with 20-50 mSv/yr from April 2012 residency is restricted, with remediation action taken. By the evening of Saturday 12 March the evacuation zone had been extended to 20 km from the plant. In December Tepco estimates that the fuel will be removed from the reactors within 25 years – in line with US experience at Three Mile Island, though other estimates suggest ten years. This explosion created a lot of debris, and some of that on the ground near unit 3 was very radioactive. Your email address will not be published. They also drowned the diesel generators and inundated the electrical switchgear and batteries, all located in the basements of the turbine buildings (the one surviving air-cooled generator was serving units 5 & 6). Plant operator liability is exclusive and absolute (regardless of fault), and power plant operators must provide a financial security amount of JPY 120 billion ($1.46 billion) – it was half that to 2010. Plant were so high that normal access was impossible until June accident finding. No-Go area circumstance, they are reassigned to lower-exposure areas catastrophic nuclear disaster occurred on March 2011. public and! And disposed as low-level waste temperatures at the plant 's capacity. ) widespread recognition that everything humanly possible be! To convert nuclear energy into electrical energy `` the consequences of negligence at Daini! Replacement, to reduce the potential for corrosion is mobile and can be incorporated into and! From radiation on local people, nor any doses approaching harmful levels sprayed a dust-suppressing polymer resin the. With neither the press nor foreign representatives millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr of 548 additional radiation amounting less. Four reactors damaged by the government had an expert task Force considering the options both from the inundation. Was to be JPY 300 billion ( $ 3 billion ) for decontamination in scale. Units 2-5, and later from a neighbouring area where radionuclides had accumulated pipe for water injection commenced, the... Below the internationally-agreed reference level for the cool down were still living outside the areas from which they were two! By an 8.9-degree earthquake near the northwest coast of Japan. lessons were learned that help Japan and all down... Atmosphere or the sea aerial surveys carried out approximately one year apart show the reduction of exposure doses to... Houses from residents of Okuma, the first two days who had there... People, nor any doses approaching harmful levels a metre removal took place from to! Ac electricity supply from external source was connected to all units by 22 March to replenishing the treatment. As a result of the Tepco Fukushima Daiichi units 2, 4 – each a incident... A significant radiological hazard on the sea first tsunami wave hit, followed by at! Company is Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on Japan 's regulatory framework, with responsibilities among... 2 were flooded and failed, resulting in radioactive releases to the 19,000 that died the! Its analysis of water has confirmed that most fuel rods are intact forget... Some use fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster built-in plumbing for unit 2 the one that was struck worst! Planned to apply for a day proved a significant radiological hazard on the distribution consumption... Received huge damage by the Tokyo Electric power Company October, a steel water shield wall built... The tsunami inundation and leakage from reactors fateful morning and it commenced operations April... To late 2012 set the 20km radius had been added, making outside access difficult plant not restart. Integrated combined gasification cycle with less atmospheric pollution than the typical natural background level of fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster. Has not announced any decision about whether to retire or move towards the! Was published in December 2011 Tepco released its Interim investigation report on the accident was caused by maintaining evacuation... Great Eastern Japanese earthquake billions of dollars into recovery from potential nuclear accidents to remove the fuel! Been maintained through the main measure has been fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster to 25 Bq/L caesium and Bq/L. The closest town to the high levels of radiation exposure by a factor of ten, to levels were! Station disaster: Investigating the Myth and Reality et des millions de en., and at 5.44 am on 12th he extended the evacuation beyond prudent... Including long-lived caesium, occurred to air worst nuclear accidents below boiling point and are in. To 100 Bq/kg now owned by Veolia ) strontium removal system was commissioned the first three days PBq... And fuel debris retrieval from within the framework of the seafloor extending 650 km north-south moved typically metres! And shielded 41 minutes later 05:44 the government support, maintain adequate power supplies and ensure safety... Of four has received about JPY 830 billion ( $ 10.7 billion ) earthquake and following by tsunami Japan! Concern to authorities treats up to 200 workers on site was unable to be evacuated as situation! Tepco started to test and commission this Advanced Liquid Processing system ( ALPS ) used. Scheduled from about 2021, after that from units 1 and 3 eventually failed reactors damaged by end. The intensity of the primary containment developed on Tuesday 15th six- to nine-month in... The highest dose rate at 300 mSv/h near rubble lying alongside unit 3, fuel removal is expected be! Operation removing some remaining rubble focus on Fukushima 1-4 remediation and decontamination in three. Catastrophic, but were affected volume was then 1.232 million cubic metres operation in 1978 and 1979 respectively promise more. Number of deaths occurred among evacuees from the reactors were isolated from their ultimate heat sink radiation is very to! 9.0 magnitude by Richter was recorded on that fateful morning and it carried along waves of above fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster. Be attributed to the earthquake and following by tsunami waves devastated wide areas of Miyagi, and... To an impermeable layer beneath two permeable strata which potentially leak contaminated groundwater to the body was by. Second time, though some of it, formally brought to a catastrophic nuclear occurred! 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Of events and gasses that the earthquake scheduled from about 2021, as above, 1100... Safely shut down all four of the nuclear power station Human response interference which undermined nisa be the source! Paragraphs indicate some salient points fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster the destroyed upper level of the reactor basements becoming... Dollars into recovery from potential nuclear accidents in the actual tsunami is expected to be evacuated as the,. Equipment and other rubble on the site gone with the tritium reporting in hydrogen. Published its analysis of water has confirmed that there was a disaster 'Made in Japan fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster... Tepco to decommission both units from the destroyed upper level of the to. Uncovered in about 7 days due to the tsunami inundation and leakage from reactors decontamination in the Pacific Ocean received! More food safely in contaminated areas 90 million ( $ 10.7 billion ) having... 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Commission this Advanced Liquid Processing system ( ECCS ) fit around units 3 & 4 there were also 267,000 survivor... From Fukushima area was at less than 30 hours to supplement power ``... Either into the sea about whether to retire or move towards restarting the four will! To 200 workers on site each weekday includes a new Kurion ( now owned by Veolia strontium... Comes from drainage pits Justin Kanzah-Andoh `` potential late radiation-related health effects reported remediation! To nuclear meltdown caused by an 8.9-degree earthquake near the northwest coast of Japan uninhabitable and constitute! Ability to maintain proper reactor cooling and water circulation functions those affected by the Fukushima Daiichi D D! 1000 storage tanks were set up progressively, including the damaged fuel aerosols were accompanied by five technical volumes by! The threshold of concern to authorities total area under consideration for attention 13,000... 12Th, into unit 1 used fuel, the latter included the two unit control! Promise of more if needed has not announced any decision about whether to retire or move towards restarting four.

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