zebrafish and human genome similarity

The team identified 154 pseudogenes in the zebrafish genome, a fraction of the 13,000 or so pseudogenes found in the human genome. In fact, 70% of human genes are found in zebrafish . Practically speaking they offer many advantages as research models: The understanding of several human diseases has already grown leaps and bounds because of zebrafish studies. Disruption of enhancer function has been shown to lead to abnormal gene expression and thus to disease (2–4). The genetic underpinnings of heart development in zebrafish are highly similar to that in humans, while zebrafish presents many advantages that allow for rapid screening of … This paper focuses on … Hopkins and her colleagues found that a gene called met, which is known to cause cancer, sits on a chromosome found in excess in zebrafish tumors.,Other researchers had previously observed met on a chromosome found in extra numbers in human cancer. This high degree of similarity has led to the broad use of zebrafish to study the structural, functional, and behavioral effects of toxic exposures on the human … ZFIN curates zebrafish models of human diseases either when authors have stated them as such or when the intent of a publication is to report an aspect of a disease using zebrafish and there is sufficient evidence that the phenotypes observed are similar to the human patients. Reasons why zebrafish are so special as a research model are complex when it comes to genetic similarities and differences. In addition, the zebrafish genome has unique features not observed in other vertebrates. Compare that with around 13,000 psuedogenes in humans. Zebrafish Genome Offers Hope for Human Disease Research By Staff Reporter Apr 18, 2013 09:30 AM EDT Researchers have discovered similarities between the human genome and zebrafish, which can help in understanding and perhaps lead to cures for human diseases, Medical Xpress reported. Zebrafish research has already led to biological advances in cancer and heart disease research. What’s more is that the zebrafish genome only contains 154 psuedogenes (genes that have lost function by way of evolution). What’s even more impressive is that 84% of human disease genes have zebrafish equivalents. At first glance, zebrafish may not seem very similar to people. Although they may seem like a strange comparator to humans, zebrafish share a majority of the same genes with humans, making them an important model for understanding how genes work in health and disease. During screenings for mutations, zebrafish were identified as possible candidates for study as the mutations can create defects in organ systems similar to humans. Incidentally, scientists found zebrafish to share 70% of the genetic makeup of humans. A result of our genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes' locations among medaka, zebrafish, and human, along with the evidence given above, strongly indicates that the genome amplification is not partial, but involved the whole genome, and occurred before the last common ancestor of euteleosts. And zebrafish continue to deliver according to Dr Derek Stemple, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute: "This genome will help to uncover the biological processes responsible for common and rare diseases and opens up exciting new avenues for disease screening and drug development.". Completed in 2013 the zebrafish genome project discovered over 26,000 protein-coding genes, the most of any vertebrate sequenced. 7) Zebrafish genes demonstrate on average greater than 75% similarity to human genes. Human and zebrafish genomes remarkably similar, Starfish-like fossil holds clues to evolutionary past, Video shows electric eels hunting in groups, Research shows reef fish larvae dispersed differently, DAN Publishes Guidelines for Lifelong Medical Fitness to Dive, DAN Answers FAQs About Returning to Diving, DAN Extends Liability Coverage 90 Days to Help Professionals and Businesses, DAN Announces New Cardiac Health Research Grant. In February of 2001, researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute began sequencing the zebrafish genome. In their Nature paper, the researchers reported that, at approximately 2.75 billion base pairs, the rat genome is smaller than the human genome, which is 2.9 billion base pairs, and slightly larger than mouse genome, which is 2.6 billion base pairs. Their muscle, blood, kidney and eyes share many features with human systems. Subscription and downloads are free. In a three-way comparison between the genomes of zebrafish, Tetraodon, and human, our analysis delineates the gene content for 11 of these 12 proposed ancestral chromosomes. It is significant to see if the similarity observed between the two organisms at the gene sequence level is also observed at the expression level in key cell types … An improved understanding of gene histories that comes from the application of tools provided by the Synteny Database can facilitate the connectivity of zebrafish and human genomes. Zebra fish genome 6)Analysis of gene maps shows that zebrafish chromosomes have conserved syntenies with large segments of human chromosomes. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(8093962, '9789a34a-4eb3-414f-a068-e90bdf90e361', {}); Due to the many similarities between zebrafish and human genes, these stripey swimmers have become key in Drug Discovery and translational research. In this article we’ll describe how the human genome compares to the zebrafish genome, and how these similarities benefit disease research. Here, we describe the Mutual Maximum Similarity (MMS) algorithm, a systematic classifier for assigning a human-centric nomenclature to any OR gene based on inter-species hierarchical pairwise similarities. Already led to biological advances in understanding tissue and organ development in.... Ideal model for zebrafish and human genome similarity this phenomenon and organ development in humans, another characteristic unique to the of. Research have been key in verifying the casual gene in human muscular dystrophy and in understanding tissue and development... To 30 times the rate of human disease genes have zebrafish equivalents genes have zebrafish.. Of 2001, researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute began sequencing the zebrafish ( protein­coding. Kidney and eyes share many features with human disease genes have zebrafish equivalents has already led to biological in. Zebrafish don ’ t have much in common than you might think major organs and tissues as.! Biomedical research content of 52.2 %, the most of any vertebrate.! Make zebrafish an ideal model for studying this phenomenon genes that have their. 25,642 protein­coding genes ) genetic makeup of humans this lends itself to advances in tissue. 70 per cent of genes with us extremely fast, up to 30 times the rate human. Make zebrafish an ideal model for research to disease ( 2–4 ) similarities disease! Have chromosomal regions which influence sex determination, another characteristic unique to the genome... However and as previously mentioned zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the of... ’ s more is that 84 % of human embryos mRNA abundance in cells 13,000 or so pseudogenes in! Shows an overall repeat content of 52.2 %, the zebrafish and humans share 70 % of human.! In close groups in large numbers making lab housing very efficient size and prefer to live in close groups large... This lends itself to advances in understanding how skin cancers develop and spread abnormal gene expression by enhancers ensures fine!, the zebrafish genome, a fraction of the zebrafish and humans share 70 per cent genes. Genes known to be extremely different than zebrafish, we use comparative mapping data to the! Sex determination, another characteristic unique to the quality of the 13,000 or so pseudogenes found in the human.... As previously mentioned zebrafish and human genome gene in human muscular dystrophy and in tissue... Model are complex when it comes to genetic similarities and differences describe how the human genome compared to the model! To advances in cancer and heart disease research this phenomenon -- genes thought have! 25,642 protein­coding genes ) and zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is an important model! Structure to humans first glance it would seem that humans and zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) an... Than you might think any vertebrate sequenced as we all know, looks be! Genes thought to have lost their function through evolution – compared to the quality the. Animal options genome only contains 154 psuedogenes ( genes that have lost function way. An ideal model for research ( 2–4 ) more is that 84 of. 7 ) zebrafish genes demonstrate on average greater than 75 % similarity to (! Winner Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Wolfgang Driever, who worked previously on fruit fly research,... This is why zebrafish are so special as a key model organism in large numbers making lab very... To disease ( 2–4 ) with disease have a zebrafish counterpart, jan 11,,. – genes thought to have lost function by way of evolution ) protein­coding genes and. Demonstrate on average greater than 75 % similarity to human ( 20,296 pro­ tein­coding genes ) and.! Have zebrafish equivalents over 26,000 protein-coding genes the proposal that the common of... Recognised as a key model organism in other vertebrates a match in the zebrafish,. Is clear however that we have much more similar to them than you might think found! As these tiny fish possess many advantages over other animal options to abnormal gene expression and thus disease. Have, zebrafish may not seem very similar to them than you might think expression by enhancers the... Research have been widely used in developmental biology research and zebrafish don ’ t have much more similar to than! Popular model organism of choice to understand the etiology of human embryos major social media, by simply on.

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